The CEMEX-TEC Center developed a COVID-19 Housing Infrastructure Vulnerability Index

07/12/2020

The CEMEX-TEC Center developed a COVID-19 Housing Infrastructure Vulnerability Index

  • The IVIV-COVID index helps measure the vulnerability of the so-called precarious housing to COVID-19.
  • The IVIV-COVID allows correlations between housing vulnerability with the mapping of the dispersion of the pandemic, poverty and other researches also mapped.
  • Among the main results, it is worth noting that only 13.3% of the country's municipalities are not vulnerable and 1.6% (40) register a very high vulnerability.

Given the crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the doubts that have arisen about how it spreads, the CEMEX-TEC Center designed the COVID-19 Housing Infrastructure Vulnerability Index (IVIV-COVID), which aims to help measure the vulnerability of Mexican homes to the virus.

The index maps and presents information on the vulnerability of housing in the country, generally established in contexts of informality and which may represent a risk of greater contagion of the virus for the inhabitants, whether due to the precariousness or lack of services such as drinking water and drainage, as well as the materials with which the housing is constructed, overcrowding, lack of access to health care and its location in high-density areas.

Among the main results of IVIV-COVID, it is worth noting that 13.3% (329) of the 2,444 municipalities analyzed are not vulnerable, 15.26% (373) are highly vulnerable and only 1.6% (40) register a very high vulnerability.

In population figures, the non-vulnerable represent 13%, the highly vulnerable 18.3% and the very vulnerable 1.8%.

With respect to the states, Oaxaca is the one with the highest number of municipalities with very high vulnerability (15), followed by Puebla and Veracruz (both with 9). In contrast, the states with the highest rate of municipalities without vulnerability are Jalisco (49), Zacatecas (43) and Chihuahua (39).

The IVIV-COVID seeks to help improve decision-making in public policy matters in the short, medium and long term related to coronavirus, whether from governments at any level, as well as for private initiative and civil society. 

"People who live in precarious housing, that is, with dirt floors, walls and roofs made of flimsy or waste materials, and who are also located in demographically dense places, with little or no access to basic services such as drinking water and drainage, are at greater risk of community infection with COVID-19 because they have a limited range of action to follow WHO recommendations. The main idea behind this index is to locate these houses and measure how much their materiality and level of deficiencies influence the spread of the disease; in order to have statistical data to help direct actions, as well as influence the design of public policies that promote improvements in this type of housing," says Carmen Armenta Menchaca, leader of the Housing Area at the CEMEX-TEC Center and co-author of the Index.

In Mexico, approximately 14 million households do not enjoy the right to decent and dignified housing. This represents 45% of the total number of homes registered in the country, according to the 2015 National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (Coneval) report on the Right to Housing.

"The IVID-COVID has a positive correlation with poverty and the number of deaths, so this index, in addition to taking into account the vulnerability of housing to COVID-19, reflects those areas that will require more assistance to enable their inhabitants to maintain their food, will require a more detailed explanation of how to take care of themselves, and gives light to public and private institutions to detect the most prone areas of risk in time," says Araceli Ortega Díaz, EGOB researcher and leader of the Economics area of the CEMEX-TEC Center, co-author of the Index.

Results

The index was constructed based on the methodology of multidimensional indicators (Alkire & Foster, 2011), using data from the 2015 intercensal survey, with the most recent information at the municipal level for Mexico. The resulting indicator catalogs 2,444 municipalities that have information on all dimensions. Table 1 shows that more than 16% of municipalities are classified as high and very high vulnerability.

Table 1. Vulnerability of Municipalities

IVID-COVID

Municipalities

Total Population

Confirmed Covid 01-June

Deaths 01-June

no vulnerability

                329 

     15,536,385 

                6,145 

               577 

low vulnerability

                613 

     30,608,310 

              19,126 

            1,861 

medium vulnerability

             1,089 

     49,126,854 

              42,956 

            4,990 

high vulnerability

                373 

     21,886,642 

              22,754 

            2,497 

very high vulnerability

                  40 

       2,203,651 

                2,388 

               237 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

             2,444 

   119,361,842 

              93,369 

          10,162 

 

 

 

 

 

no vulnerability

13.5%

13.0%

6.6%

5.7%

low vulnerability

25.1%

25.6%

20.5%

18.3%

medium vulnerability

44.6%

41.2%

46.0%

49.1%

high vulnerability

15.3%

18.3%

24.4%

24.6%

very high vulnerability

1.6%

1.8%

2.6%

2.3%

 

Source: Authors' elaboration with data from the 2015 intercensal survey.

  

Table 2. Vulnerability of Municipalities by State

(IVIV-COVID)

Federal Entity

Non

Low

Medium

High

Very high

Total

Aguascalientes

8

2

0

0

0

10

Baja California

1

2

2

0

0

5

Baja California Sur

1

3

1

0

0

5

Campeche

 

0

3

8

0

0

11

Chiapas

 

0

34

62

21

1

118

Chihuahua

 

39

7

13

3

0

62

Coahuila

 

27

7

3

0

0

37

Colima

 

2

8

0

0

0

10

Distrito Federal

0

1

10

4

1

16

Durango

 

19

10

6

4

0

39

Guanajuato

21

10

15

0

0

46

Guerrero

 

0

10

56

14

1

81

Hidalgo

 

11

30

40

3

0

84

Jalisco

 

49

57

18

1

0

125

Michoacán

3

28

59

23

0

113

Morelos

 

1

12

14

6

0

33

México

 

9

29

55

28

4

125

Nayarit

 

7

9

3

1

0

20

Nuevo León

28

19

4

0

0

51

Oaxaca

 

6

100

312

133

15

566

Puebla

 

0

58

111

38

9

216

Querétaro

 

2

7

9

0

0

18

Quintana Roo

0

3

6

1

0

10

San Luis Potosí

1

13

44

0

0

58

Sinaloa

 

3

9

6

0

0

18

Sonora

 

24

29

17

1

0

71

Tabasco

 

1

5

10

1

0

17

Tamaulipas

9

8

26

0

0

43

Tlaxcala

 

7

24

18

11

0

60

Veracruz

 

6

22

101

74

9

212

Yucatán

 

1

42

58

5

0

106

Zacatecas

 

43

12

2

1

0

58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

329

613

1,089

373

40

2,444

Source: Authors' elaboration with data from the 2015 intercensal survey.

The Housing Infrastructure Vulnerability Index to COVID-19 (IVIV-COVID) was developed by the authors of the CEMEX-TEC Center: Carmen Armenta Menchaca, Araceli Ortega Díaz, Joaquin R. García Viera, Héctor A. García López and Rena Porsen Overgaard. The complete information of IVIV-COVID, such as the technical note, additional information, infographics, bibliographic references, results by municipality and states about the methodology, can be found at: https://cdcs.com.mx/es/nodes/iviv_covid 

In alliance with the School of Government and Public Transformation of the Tecnológico de Monterrey University and the School of Engineering and Sciences of the Tecnológico de Monterrey University, the IVIV-COVID is available on the site:https://mexicovid19.app/   

To contact the researchers responsible for this study, you can write to: info@cdcs.com.mx  


About CEMEX-TEC

The CEMEX-Tecnológico de Monterrey Center for the Development of Sustainable Communities promotes sustainability in communities through applied research, innovation, and entrepreneurship by creating opportunities to link with academia, civil society, and the public and private sectors, in order to raise the quality of life in rural and urban environments. For more information, visit www.cdcs.com.mx 

E-mail: info@cdcs.com.mx

Phone: +52 (81) 83582000 ext. 5225

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